Cyber forensics is an essential part of the information security process for non-banking financial institutions (NBFIs). Often, digital evidence is used to help solve physical-world crimes. The process can be streamlined when data is well-managed. This article discusses several tools for NBFIs.

Reverse steganography

Reverse steganography is a method for digital forensics examiners to disguise messages. It is useful for this purpose because it can help them identify the steganography tool used. However, many digital forensics examiners do not routinely search for steganography tools. This is because they rely on other methods, such as hash sets. Moreover, a thorough search for steganography tools can take several days.

Most commonly used steganography techniques use graphical images or audio files. Before we discuss the techniques of steganography, let us understand how these media are encoded.

Stochastic forensics

Stochastic forensics uses emergent properties of modern computers to reconstruct digital activity without the need for digital artifacts. By studying these properties, it is possible to reconstruct activity that may have been hidden from view. This type of forensics can also be used in insider threats investigations.

The process of stochastic forensics is quite similar to live analysis, but uses the operating system instead of the forensic tools. It can recover deleted data, as well as reconstruct data from physical disk sectors. Its chief application is data theft investigations. This type of forensics is a valuable tool in the fight against theft and fraud.

Deleted file recovery

The first step in recovering deleted files is to locate where they were stored. If a file is on a Windows system, the file will most likely be in the unallocated space, and can be found using a data recovery program. Depending on the type of file, the recovery process can be partial, or complete.

A digital forensic expert will ask a series of questions to determine if the deleted data is recoverable. These questions depend on the type of device, make, and model.


There are a number of tools available for NBFIs looking to perform cyber forensics. The tools vary in price and capabilities. Some of them are government-sponsored and expensive, while others are available for free or very low cost. Some of these tools allow you to perform sophisticated network and image analysis and perform threat assessments.

The tools are usually free or open source. They come in a variety of categories, including disk and data capture, email analysis, file analysis, and mobile device forensics. They are designed to make the digital forensic process quick and easy, and offer complete reports that can be used in legal procedures.

Data breach investigations

Digital forensics is the process of collecting evidence and analyzing it. It involves searching through various data archives and retrieving evidence from different systems. These records may contain private and confidential information, and it is important for companies to notify federal and state regulators when data is compromised.

Data breach investigations require forensic analysis of digital information. File names, times, and dates are important for identifying the source of the data. File names also help investigators determine when files were created, downloaded, or uploaded. Likewise, online files can be useful in locating the scene of the crime. Once this information is available, cyber forensics experts can begin their investigation.

Digital forensics experts should document the hardware and software specifications of the computer systems involved in the breach. The investigators must also keep accurate records of their investigation activities. They should document the methods used to test system functionality, copy and store data, and study information.